Prudový chránič

Prudový chránič
2 September, 2020


Prúdové chrániče sú jedným z najdôležitejších prvkov ochrany pred úrazom či požiarom spôsobeným elektrickým prúdom. V súčasnosti je ich používanie povinné takmer vo všetkých el. okruhoch v domácnosti. V článku vám opíšeme, ako fungujú, prečo sú nenahraditeľné a prečo jeden chránič na celý príbytok nemusí stačiť.


S prúdovým chráničom sa najčastejšie stretnete v rozvodnej skrinke, kde na prvý pohľad pripomína istič. Existujú však aj chrániče, ktoré majú formu adaptéra do zásuvky, prípadne sú integrované priamo v zásuvke.


Základom prúdového chrániča je tzv. súčtový transformátor. Vďaka nemu chránič vie, aké množstvo el. prúdu tečie cez fázový vodič do konkrétneho svetelného alebo zásuvkového okruhu (a tým aj do spotrebiča) a aké množstvo sa mu vracia cez neutrálny pracovný vodič („nulák“) späť. Ak chránič nameria medzi týmito prúdmi veľký rozdiel, znamená to, že nastala jedna z týchto situácií:


Dotýkate sa živej časti el. zariadenia – prúd v tomto prípade tečie cez vaše telo od miesta dotyku živej časti do zeme. Ide o tzv. jednopólový priamy dotyk. Živou časťou môže byť zdierka v zásuvke, súčiastka v spotrebiči s poškodeným ochranným krytom a pod.


Dotýkate sa časti pod napätím a súčasne ochranného vodiča – prúd v tomto prípade tečie cez vaše telo z prvého miesta dotyku na druhé. Pod ochranným vodičom si môžete predstaviť napr. ochranný kolík v zásuvke alebo vodivú kostru elektrospotrebiča, ktorá je s ochranným vodičom spravidla spojená. Ak sa však dotýkate druhou časťou tela neutrálneho pracovného vodiča („nuláka“), chránič nezareaguje, pretože týmto smerom tečie prúd aj pri bežnej prevádzke elektrospotrebičov.


Nastala porucha na zariadení – prúd tečie vplyvom poruchy cez kostru spotrebiča spojenú s ochranným vodičom a nevracia sa cez neutrálny pracovný vodič („nulák“).


Na uvedené situácie zareaguje prúdový chránič prerušením obvodu v prípade, že rozdiel medzi prúdom, ktorý posiela cez fázový vodič a ktorý sa mu vracia cez „nulák“, presiahne jeho menovitú hodnotu.


Na ochranu pred úrazom sa používajú prúdové chrániče s menovitou hodnotou rozdielového prúdu 30 mA a menšie. Ide totiž o hodnoty, ktoré neohrozia život človeka.


Your Comments
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